He and his successors were pestered by rebellions at home. [67], The King of high rank, Ahmad Shah Durrani, The Turkic Muslim sedentary people of the Tarim Basin of Altishahr were originally ruled by the Chagatai Khanate while the nomadic Buddhist Dzungar Oirats in Dzungaria ruled over the Dzungar Khanate. Professor James A. Millward described the original Uyghurs as physically Mongoloid, giving as an example the images in Bezeklik at temple 9 of the Uyghur patrons, until they began to mix with the Tarim Basin's original eastern Iranian inhabitants. Ahamad Shah Abdali or Ahamad Shah Durrani was an afghan chief belonging to the Durrani clan. They were later made political prisoners by Hussain Hotak, the Ghilji ruler of the Kandahar region. During this time Zulfiqar and the young Durrani fled to Kandahar where they took refuge with the Ghiljis. He reached Delhi on 23 January, 1757 and captured the city. Before the retreat to Kandahar, he had "removed" the royal seal from Nader Shah's finger and the Koh-i-Noor diamond tied "around the arm of his deceased master". few lines later where Niẓām al-Dīn writes about Zamān Khān: The Maratha could not stand against him and were forced to withdraw from Lahore, Multan and Sirhind. As soon as he reached Lahore, Mir Munim ran away to Delhi. A year later Nadir's brother Ibrahim Khan took control of Farah. Hence he "assumed the insignia of royalty" as the "sovereign ruler of Afghanistan". He failed to crush the Sikhs. His breast was happy on account of this budding rose [i.e., Aḥmad] The exception was Ala Singh of Patiala, who sided with the Afghans and was actually being granted and coincidentally crowned the first Sikh Maharajah at the Sikh holy temple.[66]. of happiness for Zamān but the cause of sorrow and grief for his enemies. The Sikhs had increased their power in the Punjab. After defeating the Governor of the Punjab, Abdali advanced towards Delhi. He established his own dynasty, the Sadozai, which was the name of the Pashtun khel to which he belonged to. After the assassination of Nadir Shah, Ahmad Shah Durrani succeeded the throne of Afghanistan and started plundering wealth from nearby regions.In the Chota Ghalughara and Vada Ghalughara Abdali managed to massacre many through ambush, but in the end, Abdali retreated when he encountered the Sikhs on his way to India on the banks of river Chenab. 3. Ahmad Shah Abdali was forced to retire but not before he had collected booty estimated at 3 to 12 crores of rupees and inflicted unspeakable indignity upon the Mughal Emperor. The immediate cause of his invasion on India was that he was invited by Shah Nawaz Khan, the Governor of the Punjab, to undertake an invasion of India. What is noteworthy about early Durrānī-era sources such as the Tārīkh-i Aḥmad Shāhī and Shāhnāma-i Aḥmadī is that their authors repeatedly link Aḥmad to Herat and neglect to mention his birth in Multan". His tribe was from Kandhahar. As soon as his back was turned, his conquests fell to pieces. The Marathas were forced to leave Delhi on account of scarcity of food for men and horses. the “lifeless” land of Herat. I forget the throne of Delhi Ahmad Shh Durrn (c. 1722 4 June 1772) (Pashto: ), also known as Ahmad Khn Abdl ( ), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded a The most famous Pashto poem he wrote was Love of a Nation: By blood, we are immersed in love of you. In 1749, Ahmad Shah captured the area of Punjab around Lahore. [43] The modern Uyghurs are now a mixed hybrid of East Asian and Europoid populations. https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/handle/1807/80750. Ahmad Shah Abdali sent Jahan Khan to the Punjab but he was defeated. Repeatedly invaded and plundered India right down to Delhi and Mathura between 1748 and 1761. When he was assassinated in 1747, the commander of his Afghan bodyguard, Ahmad Khan Abdali, was elected king of Afghanistan as Ahmad Shad Durrani. After conquering Kandahar in 1738, Durrani and his brother Zulfiqar were freed and provided with leading careers in Nader Shah's administration. Ahmad Shah Abdali was full of anger against all those who had dared to defy his authority. Ahmad Shah Abdali | Later known as Ahmad Shah Durrani Empire [55], 67,000 patman (each patman is 4 piculs and 5 pecks) of grain 48,000 silver ounces were forced to be paid yearly by Kashgar to the Dzungars and cash was also paid by the rest of the cities to the Dzungars. In subsequent years, the Mughal Empire became weaker all the more. In July 1730, he defeated Ibrahim Khan, a military commander and brother of Nader Shah. 14000 as annual tribute to Abdali. "Further indication that Aḥmad’s birth occurred in the Herat region may be found in another contemporary source, the Shāhnāma-i Aḥmadī by Niẓām al-Dīn “ʿIshrat” from the town of Siyālkōt in the Punjab, which includes the following verses of poetry: Since through the Creator’s cloud of beneficence Muḥammad Zamān Khān had become bountiful The lifeless mountains and plains of Herat Were again restored through the water of life chū az abr-i iḥsān-i parwardigār Muḥammad Zamān Khān shuda māya-dār zamīn murda-i kōh o dasht-i Harāt digar tāza-jān shud zi āb-i ḥayāt The inclusion of this verse in the section on Aḥmad Shāh’s birth (tawlīd) would indicate that the bounty (māya) mentioned therein is reference to none other than Zamān Khān’s son, Aḥmad, whom the poet describes as the product of the water of life (āb-i ḥayāt)—often used as a metaphor for semen—that is responsible for giving new life to what had been the “lifeless” land of Herat. Ahmad Shah Abdali came to India for the sixth time in March 1764. zamīn murda-i kōh o dasht-i Harāt From 1748 to 1767, he invaded Hindustan eight times. Our mission is to liberate knowledge. [71][72], ستا په لاره کـــې بايلــــــــي ځلمي سرونه, تاته راشمــــه زړګــــی زمــــا فـــارغ شي, ze ma ba heera na shi da sta shekeli baghona, I will not forget it your beautiful gardens, Ze mah de khekely or shekele Pakhtunkhwa de ghru saronah, During Nader Shah's invasion of India in 1739, Abdali also accompanied him and stayed some days in the Red Fort of Delhi. In 1747, Nader Shah was assassinated by his own guards. The Dzungars also extorted extra taxes on cotton, silver, gold, and traded goods from the Muslims besides making them pay the official tax. However, this; invasion was not a success. That invitation fitted very well into the ambitious plans of Ahmad Shah Abdali.”. Was the year of the Hijra 1186 (1772 A.D.)[68]. Privacy Policy The Dzungar Buddhists brought back the Aqtaghliq Afaqi Khoja Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khan Khoja and installed them as puppet rulers in Kashgar. He stayed in Delhi for about a month and repeated the carnage and arson of the type of Nadir Shah’s invasion. The Marathas received a severe blow but within ten years they were back in the North, acting as the guardians of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam whom they escorted from Allahabad to Delhi in 1771. This chapter studies the Afghan invasion, which was led by Ahmed Shah Abdali. [53], Since 1680 the Dzungars had ruled as suzerain masters over the Tarim, for 16 more years using the Chagatai as their puppet rulers. In June 1729, the Abdali forces under Zulfiqar had surrendered to Nader Shah Afshar, the rising new ruler of Persia. The guards involved in the assassination did so secretly so as to prevent the Abdalis from coming to their King's rescue. Before leaving, Ahmad removed the royal seal from Nader Shah’s finger and the Koh-i-Noor diamond tie… Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 16 October 1772) (Pashto/Persian: احمد شاه دراني‎, Hindi: अहमदशाह दुर्रानी), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (in Indian history, known by the name Ahmed Shah Abdali (अहमदशाह अब्दाली), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern Afghanistan. It bears the unmistakable scent of jasmine. His invasion contributed a great deal to the rise of the Sikhs in the Punjab. Apart from that, he wished to enhance his own reputation in Afghanistanby capturing a neighboring country. They not only lost the outlying territories but also alienated some Pashtun tribes and those of other Durrani lineages. Nader Shah favoured Ahmad Shah not only because he came from a well respected noble Afghan family but also due to his handsome features as well as both being Khorasanians. Nadir Shah's successor Ahmad Shah Abdali, following his tactics, too invaded India many times between 1748 and 1767 and raided Delhi. In short, they formed a formidable force of young Pashtun soldiers who were loyal to their high-ranking leader. [62] The Afaqi brothers died in Badakhshan and the ruler Sultan Shah delivered their bodies to the Qing. The Sikhs drove out the Afghan Officers and plundered their baggages. He and his troops were rich; moreover, they were experienced fighters. Holkar fled and the continents of Scandia followed him. Ahmad Shāh Durrānī (c. 1722 – 4 June 1772) (Pashto: احمد شاه دراني), also known as Ahmad Khān Abdālī (احمد خان ابدالي), was the founder of the Durrani Empire and is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan. The Peshwas took up the challenge of Ahmad Shah Abdali and sent Sadasiva Rao Bhau to the North in 1760. A thousand reproofs from the tongue of his dagger. The Tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani is located in the center of Kandahar, adjacent to the Shrine of the Cloak, which contains a cloak believed to have been worn by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Ahmed Shah Abdali. Away from you, grief clings to my heart like a snake. The brothers, with a powerful body of their clansmen, pledged their loyalty to Nadir Shah and soon distinguished themselves in battle. As he did not get any help, he agreed to pay Rs. [13][14][15] In July 1747, Ahmad Shah was appointed as the King of Afghanistan by a loya jirga in Kandahar, where he set up his capital. Muḥammad Zamān Khān shuda māya-dār Works dedicated to the Sadōzay of Multan, like the Zubdat al-akhbār and Taẕkirat al-mulūk-i ʿālī-shān, do not mention Aḥmad’s birth there. Because Aḥmad possessed night-illuminating radiance [54] The Uighurs were forced with multiple taxes by the Dzungars which were burdensome and set by a determined amount, and which they did not even have the ability to pay. After the departure of Ahmad Shah Abdali, the situation in India became critical. Khān’s son, Aḥmad, whom the poet describes as the product of the water of life (āb-i ḥayāt)— He seems to have been naturally disposed to mildness and clemency and though it is impossible to acquire sovereign power and perhaps, in Asia, to maintain it, without crimes; yet the memory of no eastern prince is stained with fewer acts of cruelty and injustice. [32], Nader Shah's rule abruptly ended in June 1747 when he was assassinated by his own guards. Mughal provinces were surrendered to the Persians. [31] Nader Shah recruited him because of his "impressive personality and valour" also because of his "loyalty to the Persian monarch". The Seventh invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali took place in March 1767. As a result of invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah, the Mughal empire ceased to be an all-India empire. The view of Elphinstone is that “Ahmad Shah Abadali invaded India so many times with a view to make financial gains and realise his political ambitions. After capturing the Punjab, Ahmad Shah Abdali marched towards Delhi. The Uighurs carried out "acts of resistance" like hiding the goods which were collected as taxes or violently resisting the Dzungar Oirat tax collectors, but these incidents were infrequent and widespread anti-Dzungar opposition failed to materialize. Ahmad Shah Abdali appointed Najib Khan Rohilla as Mir Bakshi and he remained in Delhi as the Agent of Ahmad Shah Abdali. In the same year, the Mughal ruler was induced to cede Sindh and all of the Punjab including the vital trans-Indus River to him, in order to save his capital from being attacked by the forces of the Durrani Empire[citation needed] Having thus gained substantial territories to the east without a fight, Durrani and his forces turned westward to take possession of Herat, which was ruled by Nader Shah's grandson, Shah Rukh. The battle which was really decisive was the Battle of Plassey which was fought in 1757. On their way back to Kandahar, the Abdalis had "unanimously accepted" Durrani as their new leader. [...] "he succumbed to his illness on 2 Rabīʿ I 1186/4 June 1772". Defeat of Marathas. It was under these circumstances that the Third Battle of Panipat was fought on 14 January, 1761 between the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali. However, Ahmad Shah Abdali was able to retain his control over Peshawar and the country West of Attock. Muḥammad Zamān Khān had become bountiful This indifferent attitude of the later Mughal Rulers towards the defense of their border was fully exploited by Ahmad Shah Abdali. Ahmad Shah Durrani, Nader Shah's seniormost general, succeeded to the throne of Afghanistan, when Shah was murdered in June, 1747. After pillaging Delhi, the Afghan Army marched out leaving a trail of burning villages, rotting corpses and desolation. The date of his departure for the house of mortality If I must choose between the world and you, The Sacred Cloak is kept locked away, taken out only at times of great crisis but the mausoleum is open and there is a constant line of men leaving their sandals at the door and shuffling through to marvel at the surprisingly long marble tomb and touch the glass case containing Ahmad Shah's brass helmet. He ruled from 1747 till his death in 1773. When Ahmad Shah Abdali came to know of these developments, he decided to attack India. In Pakistan, a short-range ballistic missile Abdali-I, is named in the honour of Ahmed Shah Abdali.[70]. Urdu Diary 689,922 views. The Dzungar Khanate then conquered the Tarim Basin in 1680, setting up the Afaqi Khoja as their puppet ruler. During the Qing's war against the Dzungars, Burhan-ud-din and his brother Khan Khoja then pledged allegiance to Qing China in exchange for delivering them from Dzungar rule. [29] He began his military conquest by capturing Qalati Ghilji from its governor Ashraf Tokhi, and then captured Ghazni, where he installed his own governor after some fighting. After having defeated the Russians and the Turks, Nadir Shah of Iran, had set out of Iran to punish the Afghans for their actions. The mausoleum is covered in deep blue and white tiles behind a small grove of trees, one of which is said to cure toothache, and is a place of pilgrimage. Every harvest season, women and food had to be provided to Dzungars when they came to extract the taxes from them. 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