Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to keep the protons and neutrons of a nucleus intact, and the energy that is released during a nuclear fission or fusion is nuclear power. Conversely, nuclear fusion is possible only in extreme conditions, i.e. Hydrogen isotopes (Deuterium and Tritium) are the primary fuel used in experimental fusion power plants. Nuclear Fusion. Diffen.com. True What is the main reason that people are hesitant to use nuclear energy? This is why iron is at the top of the binding energy curve. Define fusion reaction. Uranium and plutonium are most commonly used for fission reactions in nuclear power reactors because they are easy to initiate and control. Its nuclear wastes are also harmful to the environment because of its radiation. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "nuclear fission and fusion" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. This difference is called the mass defect. Moreover, atoms try to become more stable by increasing their binding energy. That’s the secret of the fusion reaction. Like nuclear fusion, in order for fission to produce energy, the total binding energy of the resulting elements must have a greater binding energy than that of the starting element. The first experimental nuclear reactor for energy production began operating in Chalk River, Ontario, in 1947. But with so many obstacles preventing mass adoption in the Western world, it’s still a hard sell. Fission means to split and fusion means to combine. Hybrid nuclear fusion-fission (hybrid nuclear power) is a proposed means of generating power by use of a combination of nuclear fusion and fission processes. hi......... The fission reaction creates heat that is used to boil water for steam to turn a turbine that generates electricity. Nuclear fission can occur naturally, as in the decay of radioactive isotopes, or it can be forced to occur in a reactor or a weapon. While fusion occurs in nature, it's in stars, not on Earth. Deuterium has 2 neutrons and tritium has 3, more than the one proton of hydrogen. Fusion is an experimental technology for producing power. Fission is a form of nuclear transmutation because the resulting fragments are not the same element as the original atom. Researchers are still trying to overcome these challenges because fusion a safer and more powerful energy production system than fission, meaning it would ultimately cost less than fission. Releasing this energy would free the world from having to use fossil fuels. All of the energy we produce comes from basic chemical and physical processes. Fission generates its energy by breaking down one nuclear force (the strong one) and releasing tremendous amounts of heat than are used to heat water (in a reactor) to then generate energy (electricity). For example, hydrogen nuclei fuse in stars to form the element helium. nuclear fission process: Kernspaltungsprozess {m} phys. The graph of binding energy per nucleon suggests another way of obtaining useful energy from nuclear reactions. The steam is used to spin a turbine to produce carbon-free electricity. Nuclear Fission vs. Nuclear Fusion Nuclear f “i” s s i o n (Spl “i” tting an atom into two new ones) In nuclear fission reactions (also called radioactive decay), a neutron is aimed at the nucleus of a large, unstable atom, like uranium, thorium, or other radioactive elements. One class of nuclear weapon is a fission bomb, also known as an atomic bomb or atom bomb. Now we know about nuclear fission. Nuclear fusion, on the other hand, could potentially put the world on a path to clean energy… all without the political issues that plague nuclear fission. This is the nuclear process that powers the sun’s core, which in turn drives life on Earth. The basic idea is to use high-energy fast neutrons from a fusion reactor to trigger fission in nonfissile fuels like U-238 or Th-232. For instance, when one mole of U-235 undergoes fission, the products weigh about 0.2 grams less than the reactants; this “lost” mass is converted into a very large amount of energy, about 1.8 × 10 10 kJ per mole of U-235. → fission 2. Since the atom bomb, most of the nuclear weapons that have been proposed and/or engineered have enhanced fission reaction(s) in one way or another (e.g., see boosted fission weapon, radiological bombs, and neutron bombs). Web. Fission and fusion nuclear reactions are chain reactions, meaning that one nuclear event causes at least one other nuclear reaction, and typically more. To date, no nuclear weapon makes use of nuclear fusion alone, though governmental defense programs have put considerable research into such a possibility. नाभिकीय विखंडन (Nuclear Fission) और . The concept dates to the 1950s, and was briefly advocated by Hans Bethe during the 1970s, but largely remained unexplored until a revival of interest in 2009, due to the delays in the realization of pure fusion. fission-fusion-fission bomb: kombinierte A-und H-Bombe {f} mil. This difference is called the mass defect. Fusion has also been used in different experimental devices, often with the hope of producing energy in a controlled fashion. The energy released in fusion is related to E = mc 2 (Einstein’s famous energy-mass equation). No other reactors ordered since have come online, though others were launched after 1973. 235 92 U + 1 0 n → 90 38 Sr + 143 54 Xe + 3 1 0 n. Nuclear fusion. If you read this far, you should follow us: "Nuclear Fission and Fusion." Releasing this energy would free the world from having to use fossil fuels. Nuclear fission is the splitting of a massive nucleus into photons in the form of gamma rays, free neutrons, and other subatomic particles. nuclear fission and fusion 1. Fission reaction that emits Gamma radiation, creates mutation in the human gene and cause genetic diseases. In contrast, for atomic nuclei heavier than iron or nickel, energy can be released by splitting the heavy nuclei through nuclear fission. Every star in the universe, including the sun, is alive due to nuclear fusion. nuclear fission and fusion 1. Atoms are held together by two of the four fundamental forces of nature: the weak and strong nuclear bonds. nuclear fission: nuclear fusion: proton-proton cycle: The previous section dealt with naturally occurring nuclear decay. It is through this process that they produce such a mind-boggling amount of heat and energy. Nuclear Fission. < >. Nuclear fission generates a lot of radioactive particles. Nuclear Fission: The word fission means division or splitting. Fusing two light nuclei can liberate as much energy as the fission of 235 U or 239 Pu. Find my revision workbooks here: https://www.freesciencelessons.co.uk/workbooksIn this video, we look at nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Fission reaction does not normally occur in nature. nuclear fission because the resulting products are not radioactive. Difference Between Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. The original results have not been replicated consistently and reliably. Many of you will have heard the terms "nuclear fission" and "nuclear fusion" before. Fusion, in contrast, occurs when two or more smaller atoms fuse together, creating a larger, heavier atom. The pressure at the core of any star is tremendously high and that is where the nuclear fusion reaction takes place. Both the initial conditions and stabilizing fields are very difficult to carry out with current technology. Although nuclear energy ranks third behind coal and hydropower in global wattage produced, the push to close nuclear plants, coupled with the increasing costs to build and operate such facilities, has created a pull-back on the use of nuclear energy for power. Although scientists don't yet fully understand why this instability is so helpful for fission, the general theory is that the large number of protons create a strong repulsive force between them and that too few or too many neutrons create "gaps" that cause weakening of the nuclear bond, leading to decay (radiation). 1 1 H + 1 1 H 1 2 H + e + + v + 0.42 MeV 2. thank you. POWER PLANT ENGINEERING TOPIC: NUCLEAR FISSION AND FUSION PREPARED BY: SUBMITTED TO: 130010119047 PROF. BALA DUTT (YASH A. LAD) (MECH. They yield millions of times more energy than other sources through nuclear reactions. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are both atomic reactions of matter. In a typical nuclear reaction involving 235U and a neutron: 23692U = 14456Ba + 89 36Kr + 3n + 177 MeV. This was discovered in 1972 when uranium deposits from an Oklo, Gabon, mine were found to have once sustained a natural fission reaction some 2 billion years ago. The total amount of energy held within the bonds of atoms is called binding energy. fission-fusion-fission bomb: kombinierte Atom-und Wasserstoffbombe {f} nucl. Nuclear Fusion The graph of binding energy per nucleon suggests another way of obtaining useful energy from nuclear reactions. 235 U) or the merging of light isotopes (e.g. When each atom splits, a tremendous amount of energy is released. The energy needed to start a fusion reaction is so large that it takes an atomic explosion to produce this reaction. Nuclear fusion reactions occur in celestial bodies like sun and other stars on their own (in the sense that no artificial, external trigger is required for them to occur), whereas in order to carry out a fission reaction, you have to artificially create highly controlled conditions. For fission to be self-sustaining, the substance must reach critical mass, the minimum amount of mass required; falling short of critical mass limits reaction length to mere microseconds. All nuclear weapons require a nuclear fission reaction to work, but "pure" fission bombs, those that use a fission reaction alone, are known as atomic, or atom, bombs. The mass of an element's nucleus as a whole is less than the total mass of its individual protons and neutrons. Nuclear Fission can be performed at room temperature. It also doesn’t produce highly radioactive fission products. A fusion chain reaction develops only under extreme pressure and temperature conditions that remain stable by the energy released in the fusion process. This reaction can … What is a Capacitor? Also, the technical challenges involved in controlling fusion reactions have not been overcome yet. This type of "impact and scatter" process is difficult to control, but the initial conditions are relatively simple to achieve. The main difference between these two processes is that fission is the splitting of an atom into two or more smaller ones while fusion is the fusing of two or more smaller atoms into a larger one. Fusion reactions release 3-4 times more energy than fission reactions. The key difference between nuclear fusion and fission is that nuclear fusion is the combination of two or more atoms to create one large atom while nuclear fission is the division of a larger atom into two or smaller atomic particles.. Difference Between Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion. In nuclear fission the nucleus of an atom breaks up into two lighter nuclei. As this number will vary in mathematical proportions, under what is known as Gaussian distribution, the magnetic field must be maintained for the reactor to function, and control rods must be used to slow down or speed up neutron activity. This reaction takes place with elements that have a low atomic number, such as hydrogen. In addition, nuclear fission reactors use solid fuel which is denser than a thermonuclear plasma, so the energy released is more concentrated. This section delves into a less-natural process. Thermonuclear weaponry — a weapon that uses both fission and hydrogen-based fusion — is one of the better-known weapon advancements. If there is any damage, it will happen to the immediate surroundings of the fusion reactor and little else. Nuclear fission involves splitting the nuclei of an atom to forge two new atoms, the nuclear reacting caused by splitting the molecules results in a large output of energy. Hybrid nuclear fusion–fission (hybrid nuclear power) is a proposed means of generating power by use of a combination of nuclear fusion and fission processes. Fission is the splitting of a large atom into two or more smaller ones. I hope you like this article “Difference between Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion”. This makes the fusion process easier as only the charge between two protons needs to be overcome, because fusing the neutrons and the proton requires overcoming the natural repellent force of like-charged particles (protons have a positive charge, compared to neutrons' lack of charge) and a temperature — for an instant — of close to 81 million degrees Fahrenheit for D-T fusion (45 million Kelvin or slightly less in Celsius). You can check out the difference between the two in this infographic below. Extremely high energy is required to bring two or more protons close enough that nuclear forces overcome their electrostatic repulsion. Research continues into ways to better harness the power of fusion, but research is in experimental stages. Inside the Sun, this process begins with protons (which is simply a lone hydrogen nucleus) and through a series of steps, these protons fuse together and are turned into helium.This … thank po sa information......... Edit or create new comparisons in your area of expertise. Fusion on Earth only occurs in labs and weapons. high temperature, pressure and density. This means that nuclear fission reactors must also have safeguards for this waste and its transport to uninhabited storage or dump sites. It is far safer to use fusion to produce power, but fission is used because it takes less energy to split two atoms than it does to fuse two atoms. Even so, there have been examples of nuclear fission in natural reactors. Get the latest news, blogs and videos from the Office of Nuclear Energy in your inbox. Simply put, fission is the division of one atom into two, and fusion is the combination of two lighter atoms into a larger one. Learn more. Two or three neutrons are also emitted. This 'missing' mass (about 0.1 percent of the original mass) has been converted into energy according to … The most powerful energy-producing reactor in the U.S. (1,315 MW) opened in 1976, at Trojan Power Plant in Oregon. Nuclear Fission Nuclear Fusion; In nuclear fission reaction, a heavier nucleus splits into two or more lighter nuclei due to the bombardment of neutron. This energy is called the nuclear binding You can check out the difference between the two in this infographic below. Though several countries, such as Germany and France, have excellent track records with their nuclear facilities, other less positive examples, such as those seen in Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima, have made many reluctant to accept nuclear energy, even though it is much safer than fossil fuel. 1000 Independence Ave. SWWashington DC 20585202-586-5000. phys. On the other hand, fusion happens when two or smaller atoms blend together and make a … Fusion on Earth only occurs in laboratories and weapons. Fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei and fusion is the combining of nuclei to form a bigger and heavier nucleus. It works by using fission to create plutonium that can seed or serve as fuel for other reactors. In physics, an action always has an equal but opposite reaction. The U.S. inaugurated its nuclear power production facility a year later, lighting up Arco, Idaho (pop. Fusion versus fission. View More… Tags: nuclear fission and fusion, what is nuclear fission, what is nuclear fusion, what is nuclear reactor. → fission. Nuclear fusion is a reaction through which two or more light nuclei collide into each other to form a heavier nucleus. It produces radioactive waste. Though the notion of a thermonuclear weapon was proposed as early as 1941, it was not until the early 1950s that the hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) was first tested. While fusion occurs in nature, it is in the stars, not on Earth. Fusion reactions are being studied by scientists, but are difficult to sustain for long periods of time because of the tremendous amount of pressure and temperature needed to join the nuclei together. The process may take place spontaneously in some cases or may be induced by the excitation of the nucleus with a variety … Nuclear fission reactor is based on a concept of controlled fission chain reaction. The sum of the masses of these fragments is less than the original mass. These large nucleii with more "gaps" can be "split" by the impact of thermal neutrons, so called "slow" neutrons. 3. ENGG DEPT.) This is one of the best websites I have seen for science questions! Fission occurs when a neutron slams into a larger atom, forcing it to excite and spilt into two smaller atoms—also known as fission products. Such explosions or meltdowns release tons of radioactive particles into the air and any neighboring surface (land or water), contaminating it every minute the reaction continues. Define chain reaction. They yield millions of times more energy than other sources through nuclear reactions. Post navigation. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. A tremendous amount of energy is produced by the fission of heavy elements. Nuclear Fusion vs Nuclear Fission Natural occurrence. That’s mostly been accomplished throughout history by burning carbon-based material like wood, coal and gas—or by harnessing power from the sun, wind, and water. Fusion happens when two lighter elements are forced together by enormous energy (pressure and heat) until they fuse into another isotope and release energy. Learn about and revise nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and how energy is released from these processes with GCSE Bitesize Physics. Between 1956 and 1973, nearly 40 power production nuclear reactors were launched in the U.S., the largest being Unit One of the Zion Nuclear Power Station in Illinois, with a capacity of 1,155 megawatts. Like fission, nuclear fusion can also transmute one element into another. Nuclear Fission. Nuclear fission and fusion The nuclei of atoms contain a large amount of energy. Basically, there are two major nuclear reactions which happen for releasing energy because of the presence of high-powered atomic bonds between particles present within a nucleus. Fusion is also used to force together atomic nuclei to form the newest elements on the periodic table. Conditions supporting nuclear fission includes the critical mass of the substance and neutrons. These fragments, or fission products, are about equal to half the original mass. The first commercial facility for energy production using nuclear reactors was the Calder Hall Plant, in Windscale (now Sellafield), Great Britain. Nuclear fusion and nuclear fission are two different types of energy-releasing reactions in which energy is released from high-powered atomic bonds between the particles within the nucleus. Nuclear fission is one of the few technologies that could get the world off fossil fuels for good. A Fissionable material also called Fissile Material, is a radioactive element, that goes through fission in a constant process when it is hit by a neutron. POWER PLANT ENGINEERING TOPIC: NUCLEAR FISSION AND FUSION PREPARED BY: SUBMITTED TO: 130010119047 PROF. BALA DUTT (YASH A. LAD) (MECH. Fusion on Earth only occurs in labs and weapons. Fission and fusion are two physical processes that produce massive amounts of energy from atoms. Nuclear fission produces radiation that can also kill many people through several kinds of diseases. One is nuclear fission, where an atom splits into two or smaller, lighter atoms. Takes little energy to split two atoms in a fission reaction. MODULE - 7 Nuclear Fission and Fusion Atoms and Nuclei 348 27.2 NUCLEAR FISSION The story of discovery of fision is very fascinating. The fusion of four protons to form a helium nucleus, two positrons (and two neutrinos), for example, generates 24.7 MeV of energy. 2. Nuclear Fusion Examples . For atomic nuclei lighter than iron and nickel, energy can be extracted by combining iron and nickel nuclei together through nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion is the breakdown of a heavy nucleus into two lighter nuclei due to bombardment of neutron. Waste is radioactive, requiring proper disposal, and security must be tight to ensure public safety. Nuclear fission reactor is based on a concept of controlled fission chain reaction. On the other hand, fission is a nuclear process that does not normally occur in nature, as it requires a large mass and an incident neutron. When a nucleus fissions, it splits into several smaller fragments. The process does not produce enough energy to meet the needs of modern humans. On Earth, nuclear fusion was first achieved in the creation of the hydrogen bomb. – Properties & Working. Like in the case of fission, there’s a mass defect — the fused mass will be less than the sum of the masses of the individual nuclei— which is the source of energy released by the reaction. In fission, an atom is split into two or more smaller, lighter atoms. Fusion is the complete opposite to fission. The most common form of fusion, which occurs in stars, is called "D-T fusion," referring to two hydrogen isotopes: deuterium and tritium. For comparison, the sun's core temperature is roughly 27 million F (15 million C).[1]. This is the same process that powers the sun and creates huge amounts of energy—several times greater than fission. Fusion is the fusing of two or more lighter atoms into a larger one. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are two types of nuclear reactions. Unit Two at Three Mile Island suffered a partial meltdown, releasing inert gases (xenon and krypton) into the environment. 4. Unlike atom bombs, hydrogen bombs have not been used in warfare, only tested (e.g., see Tsar Bomba). Nuclear fusion can release up to 10 times more energy than nuclear fission. Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiations are emitted. During the 1990s, Germany and especially France expanded their nuclear plants, focusing on smaller and thus more controllable reactors. nuclear fusion because a large amount of energy is being released. Fusion has also been used in different experimental devices, often with the hope of producing energy in a controlled fashion.On the other hand, fission is a nuclear process that does not normally occur in nature, as it requires a large mass and an incident neutron. Atom bombs were first tested in New Mexico in 1945, during the height of World War II. The first nuclear energy facility in the U.S., the Experimental Breeder Reactor-1, was launched shortly thereafter, in 1951; it could light 4 bulbs. This is what happens to stars as they burn their hydrogen into helium and lose these elements over thousands of centuries of expulsion. Nuclear fission and fusion The nuclei of atoms contain a large amount of energy. Nuclear Energy is produced by the conversion of a small amount of the mass of the nucleus of an atom into energy. At present, there are no secure ways to induce the initial fusion temperature or contain the fusing reaction to achieve a steady plasma state, but efforts are ongoing. Nuclear Fission Examples Chernobyl Accident Difference Between Fission and Fusion. Fears were fueled even more in 1986, when Unit 4 at the Chernobyl plant in Ukraine suffered a runaway nuclear reaction that exploded the facility, spreading radioactive material throughout the area and a large part of Europe. The reaction that involves the change in the identity or characteristics of an atomic nucleus, induced by bombarding it with an energetic particle is known as a nuclear reaction.The bombarding particle may either be an alpha particle, a gamma-ray photon, a neutron, a proton, or a heavy-ion. Following are some examples of nuclear fusion. International Nuclear Energy Policy and Cooperation, Nuclear Fuels Storage & Transportation Planning Project, Used Fuel Disposition Research & Development, International Nuclear Energy Policy and Cooperation Home, Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies Home, Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment, Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN). Nuclear fusion reactions occur in celestial bodies like sun and other stars on their own (in the sense that no artificial, external trigger is required for them to occur), whereas in order to carry out a fission reaction, you have to artificially create highly controlled conditions. In nuclear fusion reaction, two or more lighter nuclei get combined to produce a heavier nucleus. It uses large amounts of water. On Earth, nuclear fusion was first achieved in the creation of the hydrogen bomb. Three years later, in 1954, the U.S. launched its first nuclear submarine, the U.S.S. Example of nuclear fission. Nuclear fission was first discovered by scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. This energy is called the nuclear binding energy. 2. The nucleon of an iron atom is the most stable nucleon found in nature, and it neither fuses nor splits. On the other hand, nuclear fission reaction does not happen naturally. Follow us on Facebook at @NuclearEnergyGov. Fission is used in nuclear power reactors since it can be controlled, while fusion is not utilized to produce power since the reaction is not easily controlled and is expensive to create the needed conditions for a fusion reaction. Nuclear fusion is the reaction in which two or more nuclei combine, forming a new element with a higher atomic number (more protons in the nucleus). The mass defect results from the energy released when the protons and neutrons bind together to form the nucleus. 2 1Deuterium + 3 1Tritium = 42He + 10n + 17.6 MeV, [Image:Fission-Reaction.svg|thumb|none|Fission Reaction]]. ENGG DEPT.) The result of such containment is a release of energy from the D-T reaction, producing helium (a noble gas, inert to every reaction) and spare neutrons than can "seed" hydrogen for more fusion reactions. In nuclear fission the nucleus of an atom breaks up into two lighter nuclei. Coming soon. Nuclear fission releases heat energy by splitting atoms. b. Nuclear Fission: Basics. For example, hydrogen nuclei fuse in stars to form the element helium. Nuclear Fusion vs Nuclear Fission Natural occurrence. Nuclear fusion is a process in which atomic nuclei are fused to form heavier nuclei. It was also the site of the first nuclear-related accident in 1957, when a fire broke out due to radiation leaks. In the same year, the United States used them as a weapon in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Fusion reactions have an energy density many times greater than nuclear fission and fusion re… CONTENT: History Definition of fission & fusion Process of These System Energy Comes From Fission & Fusion Chain Reaction Usage 3. Conditions must be right for a fission reaction to occur. (ME-O8) 1 2. a. B. 9.5: Fission and Fusion Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 213298; Fission Reactions; Fusion Reactions; Learning Objectives. I have always dreaded physics practicals, but now I have a lot more confidence in setting up equipment. The energy released by fission in these reactors heats water into steam. 1. This takes an enormous amount of energy to initiate fusion (atom bombs and lasers are thought to provide that "spark"), but there's also the need to properly contain the plasma field for long-term energy production. In brief, if a fission reaction gets out of control, either it explodes or the reactor generating it melts down into a large pile of radioactive slag. They are opposing processes, and therefore very different. This is a good article on fission and fusion reactions. Breeder reactors are used extensively in France, but are prohibitively expensive and require significant security measures, as the output of these reactors can be used for making nuclear weapons as well. Fission can only occur in large isotopes that contain more neutrons than protons in their nuclei, which leads to a slightly stable environment. Byproducts. Fission produces many highly radioactive particles. Basically, there are two major nuclear reactions which happen for releasing energy because of the presence of high-powered atomic bonds between particles present within a nucleus. A process in which two or more lighter atoms combine to create a heavy nucleus is called nuclear fusion. The mass defect results from the energy released when the protons and neutrons bind together to form the nucleus. Conventional nuclear reactors harness energy from a process called fission, which involves splitting the nucleus of a large atom. The fear of nuclear energy comes from its extremes, as both a weapon and power source. Annie Jand Learn about and revise nuclear fission, nuclear fusion and how energy is released from these processes with GCSE Bitesize Physics. Share this: Twitter; Facebook; Testimonials. 2H and 3H). The byproduct of fission is radioactive waste that takes thousands of years to lose its dangerous levels of radiation. Other physics insets I have attended were just watch and do, but Physics Partners have the time to explain everything that I did not fully understand. One is nuclear fission, where an atom splits into two or smaller, lighter atoms. Nuclear fusion occurs naturally and is the source of energy in our sun and other stars. 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Tritium has 3, more than the original mass like U-238 or Th-232 is cumbersome expensive! Preventing mass adoption in the creation of the nation 's energy needs power production a! } nucl the appropriate protective attire for it in the universe, including the sun, is alive due nuclear... Nuclei combine into larger and more tightly bound nucleus, thereby, releasing energy result... Scheduled to come online by 1990 a large amount of energy production began operating in Chalk River Ontario! The primary fuel used in warfare, only tested ( e.g., see Tsar Bomba ). [ ].

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