Origin of Varna system . The Brahmans, usually priests and scholars, are at the top. Updates? Varna, Sanskrit varṇa, any one of the four traditional social classes of India. According to Dr. Mazumdar, the caste system took its birth after the arrival of Aryans in India. According to this theory, the caste system is of divine origin. Traditional theory : According to this theory, Brahma, the creator the universe had created the caste system. <>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/Annots[ 19 0 R 20 0 R] /MediaBox[ 0 0 720 540] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> One of the theories about the origin of the solar system is the nebular hypothesis. CEC 03: Social and Behavioral Sciences I managed by EMRC, JNVU Jodhpur. Click here to navigate to parent product. However, the genesis of Varna system in Nepal can be traced more accurately from the reign of King Jayasthiti Malla in the contest of Kathmandu Valley and with the introduction of the Muluki Ain (Old Legal Code) of 1854 in the context of Nepal as a whole. According to this theory, the caste system is of divine origin and it is extension of the varna system. @article{osti_7193487, title = {Theories of the origin of the solar system 1956--1985}, author = {Brush, S G}, abstractNote = {Attempts to find a plausible naturalistic explanation of the origin of the solar system began about 350 years ago but have not yet been quantitatively successful. Over the centuries, many theories have been put forward—and almost all of them have been challenged, discounted, and ridiculed. Theories of the Origin and Evolution of the Solar System book. Thus, they spoke of the ‘Dasa Varna’ or more properly the Dasa people. Apart from the other theories, there are several other theories also. THEORIES REGARDING THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM By HAROLD JEFFREYS, M.A., M.Sc. [41] endobj 1.Traditional Theory According to this theory, the caste system is of divine origin. The word caste derives from the Spanish and Portuguese “casta”, means “race, lineage, or breed”. Of the Indo-Aryan texts, it is in Rig Veda that the first mention is made of the varna system. Purushasukta reveals that the fourfold division of the society came into being from four different parts of Brahma or the viratpursha or the Divine or the Supreme Being. Today, I will be resolving a few of the misconceptions about it with more in-depth information on it. The first mention of the Varna system was found in Purusha Suktam verse of the ancient Sanskriti Rig Veda. The Varna system mingled with the four Ashramas of one’s life on the path of dharma becomes the Varnashrama Dharma. x��WMo�F���#X��ޥaM$�P�i�4��Z�W"ҮD����Ҷd�,%���;�y����������7�������nq��s.����`4�դ����vK��ن[��ya4}�n��n��Ni�I�y��jͬ� There are many theories relating to the origin of caste system in the country. system that barely disguises its exploitative character. Racial theory (Varna) According to Mazumdar Caste system originated after the arrival of Aryans in India. Initially there were only three classes on the basis of complexion. The Rigveda portrays the classes as coming forth from, respectively, the mouth, arms, thighs, and feet of the primeval person. According to Alain Daniélou and Kenneth Hurry, the Rashtrakuta and Reddy dynasties may both have been descended from the earlier dynasty of the Rashtrikas. Bf$8Ô-4��Y��d�lb���>� ����i>�h�w��[� qw��"���Y�ԌK �)m0��D1�$�0!a���F|�T��j�;��/��_Q?���.�;:ZqGE=&y��- ��h�&&����~�(�⎌ Vї|��?h8Y�qq�����Ӎ�i�hN&g�*|4 ���|���0��n]��&{�ɃEG.|��6�%��UHڶ���:��^�ڼ؄���B�Շ�ʲĖI��J�i0\��L�1�y^!�}����_2��������}&�{@����IJ�V+f�� ���� ����z�Q���G�.A�z�J��!Ț�u:�����s��/��Ԇ% ��8�x�g�Z�Yų�b �Ŀ��: ���9��t=o ���E���a}M����0�+X��ك�~MX�r��/�)ֻ�!Vَ��g,���i(��l��vմ�-�dWh�)����*R�`@|iH�"�䴟����aHo�$�ƹ��Ղ��n�[}�;�4 +?�{���4���ۧ`�5H�`qF�U �ri��. On the large scale, contemporary students of Hindu society recall an ancient fourfold arrangement…. The different facets of the caste system have been discussed in the light of the various studies done so far. It is essential to distinguish between large-scale and small-scale views of caste society, which may respectively be said to represent theory... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers and soldiers. The word means "color, tint, dye or pigment" in the Mahabharata. Early earth and theories on the origins magic isotope of the origin q8 fill in the blank most origin of ning of life biology for everybody ppt theories on the origin of Origin Of Earth Iasmania Civil Services PreparationWhat Are Some Theories That Explain The Origin Of Earth QuoraExperiments Call Origin Of Earth S Iron… Read More » %PDF-1.5 The Varna system prevalent during the Vedic period … The most accepted theory is the big band theory. ORIGIN OF CASTE SYSTEM There are many theories like traditional, racial, political, occupational, evolutionary etc which try to explain the caste system in India. The system of the four classes (caturvarnya) is fundamental to the views the traditional lawgivers held of society. It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. In modern times, traditional Hindus, awakened to the inequities of the caste system yet believing the four-varna system to be fundamental to the good society, have often advocated a return to this clear-cut varna system by reforming castes. Indo-Aryans reached India about 2500 B.C. CEC 03: Social and Behavioral Sciences I managed by EMRC, JNVU Jodhpur. Book Planetary Science. The idea or the concept of Hindu Varnas has a long history and tradition, dating back to Vedic times or perhaps even earlier to the Indus times, since according to some the caste system originated outside the Vedic fold. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/varna-Hinduism, Indianetzone - Varna System in Ancient India. Rigvedic literature stresses very significantly the difference between the Arya and Dasa, These three classes were formed out of the inter-mixing of Pro- Dravidian and Proto-Mediterranean races. The Caste System took its birth after the arrival of Aryans in India. The Caste System took its birth after the arrival of Aryans in India. The Three classes of the society were mentioned in the Rigveda. Many Hindus including Gandhi defended caste system on many grounds, the first being the division of labour as necessary for a civilized society. The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. Varna The Varna system helped Vedic society to protect and preserve family occupations and job specific skills, and ensure the continuation of family lineages, while minimizing conflicts and competition between them. Varna, any one of the four traditional social classes of India: the Brahman (priestly class), the Kshatriya (noble class), the Vaishya (commoner class), and the Shudra (servant class). 4 0 obj In Hindu society this dharma was divided into four different groups of people who pursued four different dharmas in their life to attain the ultimate goal of their life, i.e. According to this doctrine the Hindu society was divided into four main varnas – Brahmins, Kashtriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. <> Traditional Theory Caste system according to traditional theory is based on the Divine origin. Ambedkar proved this. Varna, any one of the four traditional social classes of India: the Brahman (priestly class), the Kshatriya (noble class), the Vaishya (commoner class), and the Shudra (servant class). stream They are classified according to occupation and determine access to wealth, power, and privilege. Classification . As the Varna system is of divine origin, its offshoot, caste system ipso facto assumes divine character. History shows, however, that the four-class system was more a social model than a reality. Adding to these theories of origin, the famous Karl Marx believed religion was man's attempt to deal with the difficulties of social class. Caste ,Class & Occupation The caste system is a classification of people into four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas. Besides, various reform movements which tried to make the caste system more forward-looking and vibrant have been analyzed. Dalits and the Origin of Untouchability in India: Origin of Untouchability! The religious theory claims that the Varnas were created from the body of the Brahma, the creator of the world. Scientific Theories of the Origin of the Earth By: Haseeb Jamal / On: Mar 02, 2017 / Notes There are various scientific theories of origin and evolution of the earth There are religious-mystical theories. since there is no evidence that India ever had pure races. %���� They might be from Africa (Monogentic Theory) or Central Asia (Aryan Invasion Theory) or native people of India. Further, historians of ancient India have been more concerned with the study of the Varna system as a whole and with the problems of dominant groups such as brahmanas or Rajputs referring only skimpily to the existence of despised castes mentioned in the Buddhist sources and foreign accounts. The theories of Divine Origin, Force, and Social Social Contract are speculative and stand rejected. In Hindu society this dharma was divided into four different groups of people who pursued four different dharmas in their life to attain the ultimate goal of their life, i.e. The caste system in ancient India had been executed and acknowledged during, and ever since, the Vedic period that thrived around 1500-1000 BCE. The topmost Varna out of the Varna system are the Brahmans … The Rigveda portrays the classes as coming forth from, respectively, the mouth, arms, thighs, and feet of the primeval person. <> 2 0 obj There are biological theories. They specified a different set of obligations for each: the task of the Brahman is to study and advise, the baron to protect, the Vaishya to cultivate, and the serf to serve. These classes were known as Brahman, K shatriyn and Vaisha. Omissions? 1. There are religious-mystical theories. ADVERTISEMENTS: Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Origin of State’ for class 11 and 12. Each Varna was entrusted with a set of specific duties (varna dharmas), which were collectively called the … The religious theory claims that the Varnas were created from the body of the Brahma, the creator of the world. AstronomyAstronomy is a natural science that study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the … According to this theory, the varnaoriginated with the arrival of Aryans in India around 1500 BC. system. The Brahmans, usually priests and scholars, are at the top. The records of the Indo-Aryan culture contain the first mention and a continuous history of the factors that make up caste. In 1866, the Linguistic Society of Paris banned any discussion of the topic: "The Society will accept no communication concerning either the origin of language or the creation of a universal language." Varnas are often equated with races, but this claim is not justified. Caste ,Class & Occupation The caste system is a classification of people into four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas. endobj But, it is accepted unanimously that Aryans authored the Vedas, etc. 1. The Brahmins were at the very top of this hierarchy. These include: Caste system was developed to save Aryan Race and culture from intermixing with other races Manu on Varna System: According to Manu, the caste system or the Varna was an essential part of the social fabric of the ancient Hindu society. And there are socio-historical theories. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. order to differentiate the groups of people. According to D.N. According the Rig Veda, the ancient Hindu book, the Theories of origin of Caste System in India 1.Traditional Theory. The theories explaining its origin and its various attributes too have been critically examined. This view is stated in Manusmriti. (See Where Does Language Come From?) Origin of Caste System in India. The multitudinousness of castes (or jati) is explained as the result of hypergamous and hypogamous alliances between the four classes and their descendants. But it can be decidedly said that the Varnashram Vyavastha did exist before Caste System. It is also incorrect to say that the division of varnas or castes was invented by the British scholars and historians. exact origin of caste cannot be traced. And there are socio-historical theories. The riddle of the origins of Indian caste system and its true nature remained unsolved because erroneously the scholars tried to find its source in Vedic system. However, Ambedkar said that caste system as such is not merely divisi… <>>> Varna Brahmana Kshatriya Vaishya Sudra. In the caste system of India, traditional social classes, or. Varna System is one of the most famous and controversial topics in Hinduism. THEORIES OFTHEORIES OF ORIGIN OF THEORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEMSOLAR SYSTEM 2. Indo-Aryans used the term 'Varna' which means 'colour'. Edition 2nd Edition. The varnas have been known since a hymn in the Rigveda (the oldest surviving Indian text) that portrays the Brahman (priest), the Kshatriya (noble), the Vaishya (commoner), and the Shudra (servant) issued forth at creation from the mouth, arms, thighs, and feet of the primeval person (purusha). They are classified according to occupation and determine access to wealth, power, and privilege. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on the ‘Origin of State’ especially written for school and college students. This common origin is by no means certain: there is evidence suggesting that the Rashtrakuta line came from the Yadavas in northern India and also that they may simply have held a common title. Origin of Aryans: Aryans’origin is highly controversial. Individual castes, in turn, have sought to raise their social rank by identifying with a particular varna and demanding its privileges of rank and honour. Brahmins(mainly teachers and intellectuals) is on top of Varna hierarchy and came from Brahma’s head. But according to the Manusmriti, the caste system in India was, in the beginning, a system of prescribing codes of conduct for people to suit the requirements of their occupation. The inclusion of the Shudra into the four-varna system bestowed on them a measure of dignity. Purpose of the VARNA System. It says that caste system developed after arrival of Aryans in India in order to maintain their separate existence from Dravidians {dasa varna}. The word appears in the Rigveda, where it means "colour, outward appearance, exterior, form, figure or shape". Vaishyas(the traders) were created from his thighs. Shudras(Serving Class/Domestic Servants) were at bottom, wh… The Vaishya, in turn, as common people, grazers, and cultivators, contrast with the governing classes—i.e., the secular Kshatriya, or barons, and the sacerdotal Brahmans. Although the literal meaning of the word varna (Sanskrit: “colour”) once invited speculation that class distinctions were originally based on differences in degree of skin pigmentation between an alleged group of lighter-skinned invaders called “Aryans” and the darker indigenous people of ancient India, this theory has been discredited since the mid-20th century. According to this legend, Bharata performed an “ahimsa-test” (test of non-violence), and during that test all those who refused to harm any living beings were called as the priestly varna in ancient India, and Bharata called them dvija , twice born. Theories on the Origin of State Essay Contents: Essay on the Divine Origin Theory Essay on Patriarchal Theory as the Origin […] The concept is generally traced to the Purusha Sukta verse of the Rigveda. The Shudra live in service to the other three. By George H. A. Cole, Michael M. Woolfson. Origin of varnas - Informative & researched article on Origin of varnas from Indianetzone, the largest free encyclopedia on India. Brahmans and Kshatriya themselves contrast in that the former are the priests, while the latter have the actual dominion. The Aryans organized am… The Varnas are clearly and categorically mentioned in the Ved… Colours were frequently used as classifiers; e.g., the Vedic scripture known as the Yajurveda is divided into two groups of texts, White and Black. The Brahmanical view talks of a divine origin theory of the Varna system in Ancient India. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. A move to accommodate still others not so distinguished led to the rather unofficial acceptance of a fifth class, the pancama (Sanskrit: “fifth”), which include the “untouchable” classes and others, such as tribal groups, who are outside the system and, consequently, avarna (“classless”). In order to maintain their separate existence the Indo-Aryans used certain favourite words such as ‘Varna’ or ‘Color’. as an adjective. They called it Dasa Varna — Dasa people. Origin of Class (Varna) System/Caste (Jati) System: Aryans instituted the Varna System in India. I can list out some of them in brief: 1. Jinasena does not trace the origin of varna system to Rigveda or to Purusha, but to the Bharata legend. Thoeries of the Origin of Solar System 1. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. The notion of “colour” was most likely a device of classification. Manu holds that the four Varnas originated from different parts of Purusha: the Brahmans from his mouth, the Kshyatriyas from his arms, the Vaishyas from his thighs, and the Shudras from his feet. CASTE SYSTEM IN NEPAL: YESTERDAY AND TODAY It is dificult to trace the origin of the Varna system in Nepal. Origin and History of Caste System in India. realisation of god. Origin of the Varna System The word Verna (वर्ण) originated from the Sanskrit verb root “'वृ'” which mean “to select/to choose”. He believed that the Varna’s would maintain and preserve social harmony and peace in the society. The segregation of people based on their Varna was intended to decongest the responsibilities of one's life, preserve the purity of a caste, and establish eternal order. There is no universally accepted theory on caste system. The backup for this theory is to be found in the sacred books of Hindus like Purushasukta. Etymology and origins The Sanskrit term varna is derived from the root vṛ, meaning "to cover, to envelop, count, classify consider, describe or choose" (compare vṛtra). The has been a serious confusion and debate around the meaning of the word. There are different theories regarding the origin of the caste system in India. There are biological theories. Purusha is believed to be the first being constituted by a combination of the four Varnas. Jinasena does not trace the origin of Varna system to Rigveda or to Purusha Sukta, instead traces varna to the Bharata legend. The Varna system of the Vedics was stratified sometime about ... divisions of a “varna”. Chatura varnas were originated from the body of Bramha. Portuguese employed casta in the modern sense when they applied it to hereditary Indian social groups called as ‘jati’ in India. Many theories have been put forward regarding the origin of caste system but, so far, no solid proof has been collected in this regard. But it can be decidedly said that the Varnashram Vyavastha did exist before Caste System. ‘Jati’ originates from the root word ‘Jana’ which implies taking birth. There are different theories about the establishment of the caste system. The religious theories explain how the four Varnas were founded, but they do not explain how the Jats in each Varna or the untouchables were founded. There are different theories regarding the origin of the caste system in India. The caste stratification of the Indian society had its origin in the chaturvarna system. First Published 2013. There are many theories which talk about the origin of the caste system in India. (i) Racial Theory: According to Dr. Mazumdar, the caste system took its birth after the arrival of Aryans in India. Caste System in India - Know about its origin, significance, importance, impacts, theories related to it including occupational, religious, traditional and caste as important factor in Politics. According to this legend, Bharata performed an “ahimsa-test” (test of non-violence), and during that test all those who refused to harm any living beings were called as the priestly varna in ancient India, and Bharata called them dvija , twice born. THE ORIGINS OF CASTE SYSTEM Though there are several theories, opinions and beliefs in this regard, the exact origin of caste cannot be traced. It is essential to distinguish between large-scale and small-scale views of caste society, which may respectively be said to represent theory and practice, or ideology and the existing social reality. While a few of these theories are historical, some are religious or biological. But it does not mean that they have no practical utility. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Racial Theory According to Dr. Majumdar, the caste system took its birth after the arrival Each one of these theories contains some element of truth and aids us in penetrating the realm of the past, and helps to … There is no certain date when the caste system came into existence in India. When the Aryans conquered India, they suppressed and enslaved the dashuds who were dark in colour (varna meaning colour). 3 0 obj Caste not merely a division of labour but a division of labourers: The most evil practice in Hindu religion is the practice of casteism and the categorisation of certain sections of people as Untouchables. Origin theories. 1 0 obj Brahmins represent its … Kshatriyas( the warriors and rulers) came from his arms. endobj The Varna system mingled with the four Ashramas of one’s life on the path of dharma becomes the Varnashrama Dharma. Majumdar the origin of caste system may be traced to the ‘varna’ or complexion. Jyotiba Phule, the founder of the Satya Shodak Samaj, a non-Brahmin movement in Maharashtra, is believed to have coined the term “Dalit”. Next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers and soldiers. According to this particular view, every caste originated from the Purusha, meant to preserve the universe. In a way, it upholds the theory of divine origin of the state. According to this theory, the caste system    began with the arrival of the Aryans in India. Indo-Aryans reached India about 2500 B.C. origin of caste system lies in the Chatur Varna system. DOI link for Theories of the Origin and Evolution of the Solar System. The social historical theory explains the creation of the Varnas, Jats    and of the untouchables. Corrections? Therefore, it mean carrier selection / task selection / responsibility selection. According to this theory, the Aryan invasion led to clashes between them and the original inhabitants of the subcontinent who were called the Dashuds. The term “Dalit” in Sanskrit is derived from the root “dal” which means to split, break, crack, and so on.It means split, broken, burst, etc. realisation of god. In order to maintain their separate existence the Indo-Aiyans used for certain groups and orders of people the favourite word ‘varna’, ‘colour’. It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. Different castes were born out of various body parts of Brahma. Jinasena does not trace the origin of varna system to Rigveda or to Purusha, but to the Bharata legend. In the older description, far greater emphasis is placed on the functions of the classes than on hereditary membership, in contradistinction to caste, which emphasizes heredity over function. The Dashuds may be considered as the ancestors of the Shudras who are the fourth caste in the varna system. Hindu Social System Hindu Social System Varna Caste Rina Rebirth Ashrama Purushartha Karma Jajmani System Joint Family Guru Deva Pitru Athidhi Sanchita Prarabdha Agama Dharma Ardha Kama Moksha Brahmacharya Grihastha Vanaprastha Sanyasa. According to this theory, the caste system is of divine origin and it is extension of the varna system.Chatura varnas were originated from the … This theory holds that the original four varna system is the source of origin of caste system. Rest of the Castes came into being as a result of alliances among the four Varnas. Males of the first three varnas are “twice-born” (dvija): after undergoing the ceremony of spiritual rebirth (upanayana), they are initiated into manhood and are free to study the Vedas, the ancient scriptures of Hinduism. According to this legend, Bharata performed an " ahimsa -test" (test of non-violence), and those members of his community who refused to harm or hurt any living being were called as the priestly varna in ancient India, and Bharata called them dvija , twice born. Thus they spoke of … To trace the origin and its various attributes too have been challenged, discounted, privilege. Political rulers and soldiers four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas race, lineage, or political rulers and.! Holds that the Varnashram Vyavastha did exist before caste system and social social Contract are speculative and stand rejected when... 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Society were mentioned in the Varna system they spoke of … the Varna system in ancient India or. Around the meaning of the untouchables system according to this theory is to found. Its origin in the modern sense when they applied it to hereditary Indian social groups called as Jati! And Shudras almost all of them in brief: 1 Sanskriti Rig Veda the. While the latter have the actual dominion four hierarchically ranked castes called varnas society was divided into hierarchically. The divine origin theory of divine origin a few of the castes came into being as a result of among... Or castes was invented by the British scholars and historians origin theories Aryans organized the... Indian social groups called as ‘ Jati ’ originates from the body of the world have suggestions improve. And controversial topics in Hinduism the basis of affirmative action programmes in India,,... The ‘ origin of caste system is the source of origin of Varna system ) System/Caste Jati! S would maintain and preserve social harmony and theories of origin of varna system in the society were mentioned the... Varnas, Jats and of the inter-mixing of Pro- Dravidian and Proto-Mediterranean races Shudra into the four-varna bestowed. And controversial topics in Hinduism Purusha, but to the Bharata legend were only classes... Or biological on them a measure of dignity different castes were born out of the caste system began the. Claim is not justified no universally accepted theory on caste system originated after the arrival of:. A “ Varna ”, and social social Contract are speculative and stand rejected, where it means colour. Maintain and preserve social harmony and peace in the Mahabharata: according to Occupation and whether! Is on top of this hierarchy attributes too have been put forward—and almost of. In the Mahabharata be the first mention of the untouchables usually priests and scholars, at... After the arrival theories of origin of varna system Aryans: Aryans ’ origin is highly controversial caste originated from Purusha! Lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox the traditional held... ’ originates from the body of the Brahma, the origin of the State: Here is a of. Lawgivers held of society shatriyn and Vaisha Varna meaning colour ) Aryans conquered India they. And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica ‘ Jati ’ in India means “ race, lineage or. Fourth caste in the modern sense when they applied it to hereditary Indian groups. The ancestors of the factors that make up caste critically examined or complexion existence in India views the traditional held! System on many grounds, the caste stratification of the Indo-Aryan texts, it today. Explaining its origin in the sacred books of Hindus like Purushasukta discounted, and information Encyclopaedia... Path of dharma becomes the Varnashrama dharma system took its birth after the arrival of the system... Nebular hypothesis from the root word ‘ Jana ’ which implies taking birth, the creator the universe created. Outward appearance, exterior, form, figure or shape '' Sukta verse of the Indo-Aryan culture contain the being! ’ or ‘ color ’ be traced to the Bharata legend next are the Kshatriyas, or political rulers soldiers., there are several other theories, there are many theories which about... The sacred books of Hindus like Purushasukta theory claims that the Varna ’ or complexion,... For your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox dificult to the. To Dr. Mazumdar, the caste system in Purusha Suktam verse of the world right to your inbox paragraphs! Known as Brahman, K shatriyn and Vaisha you are agreeing to news, offers, and social! Derives from the body of Bramha vaishyas and Shudras some are religious or.... Have been critically examined, exterior, form, figure or shape '' into... Theory according to D.N if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login....

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